descendant of a Scottish family exiled in XVIIème century
engages in 1784 in the regiment of Irish infantry of Dillon.
It remains in the army at the beginning of the Revolution. Its
control with Jemmapes (November 6, 1792) is worth the rank of
colonel to him. It is named brigadier general on a purely provisional
basis on August 26, 1793. It replaces Souham with the command
of the 1st division of the Army of North.
It is sent in Holland under the commands of Pichegru (1795).
Its control makes name it major general. Sent in Italy in April
1798, under the commands of Berthier, it takes part in the invasion
of Rome, from which it is named governor. It must face multiple
insurections and soon with the attack of king de Naples. It goes
against the insurrectionists, leads repression to Frossinone.
It must evacuate Rome vis-a-vis with the threat of the Mack General,
but manages to take again the initiative and to recover the city.
Sopposant with the Championnet General, it démissione
on January 11, 1799. It then is employed with the Army of Naples
beaten in Trébie on June 19, 1799, it must evacuate Italy.
to France, it supports Bonaparte at the time of the blow of the
18-Brumaire and controls the companies present in Versailles.
It is then named general inspector of the infantry (January 21,
1800). The First Consul entrusts to him an army corps of reserve
with mission of making diversion in the Tyrol. He crosses the
Alps during the winter 1800-1801. In 1801, he is a abassador
On its return, two years later, Macdonald sees isolated significant
stations, in 1804, to have supported Moreau under whom it was
useful. In 1807, he is recalled to the Army of Naples. In 1809,
the Emperor integrates it into the army of prince Eugene at the
time of the campaign of Austria. Macdonald makes capitulate Laybach
and takes an active part in the victory of Raab (June 14, 1809).
It joint with the Grande Armée in front of Vienna for
the remainder of the campaign. In Wagram, July 6, it takes the
head of a body of reserve which carries out a decisive load.
At the evening of the battle, Napoleon tightens it on his heart
and exclaims: «Macdonald General, let us forget the past,
are friendly! I make you Maréchal and Duke, you deserved
Macdonald, become governor of Gratz, discharges this mission
with as well honor as the city wants to make him one present
of 200000 francs to its departure, gift which it refuses. In
1810, it replaces Augereau with the head of VIIème body
in Spain. In Manèse, it delivers the city to the flames,
to be received by fires of mousquets.
following year, it joined the Grande Armée, on the way
for Russia. With the head of Xème body, it ensures the
defense of Riga. It asks the Prussian body which accompanies
it to follow it in its fold. But the Prussian General signs the
convention of Taurengen, making defection.
At the time of the campaign of Germany, it receives the command
of XIème body. It beats the York General on April 29,
1813 in Meresbourg. It is present at Lützen (May 2, 1813)
and at Bautzen (May 20-21, 1813). It east demolishes on August
26, 1813 in Katzbach. At the time of the battle of Leipzig (October
16-19, 1813), it controls the rear-guard with the Poniatowski
marshal. It escapes from little from death, while crossing Elster
with the stroke. It fights in Hanau on October 30, 1813 at the
time of the retirement of the French Armies towards France. It
is sent in Cologne to reform an army corps.
takes part in the campaign of France, in 1814. It faces Blücher
and is distinguished in Nangis on February 27, 1814. It approves
the abdication of Napoleon Ist It is him which carries to the
Tsar Alexandre Ier the act of abdication. It pleads the cause
of the ex-Emperor. In thanks, Napoleon offers his Egyptian sabre
Macdonald joins then in Louis XVIII. Even fact of France on January
4, 1815, it is named by Louis XVIII with the head of the troops
charged to defend Paris vis-a-vis in Napoleon. When Louis XVIII
finally decides to leave the capital, Macdonald accompanies it
until Menin, then returns to France. He does not accept any employment
at the time of the Hundred Days. With the second Restoration,
it is named large chancellor of the Legion of Honor. It dies
in 1840 in its castle of Beaulieu.