Grouchy, of an old noble
family of Normandy, is an officer with the Bodyguards, when occurs
the Revolution. It adopts the new ideas, côtoie brilliant
spirits, such Beaumarchais, of Alembert, Turgot, Condorcet and
Cabanis these two last will become his/her brothers-in-law besides
and remains in the rows of the army.
In 1792, it is named brigadier
and command the cavalry of the Army of the Alps. It is sent in
the Vendée. It must leave the army in 1793, following
the decree excluding the noble ones from the Army. It re-enlists
like private in the national guards. It is confirmed on June
11, 1795 like major general, rank which had conferred to him
the police chiefs on the armies the previous year. He is a head
of state major in the Army of the West. He becomes the second
of Notch in the Vendée.
the Directory names it second in command of the Army in charge
of an unloading in Ireland. But it does not manage to take foot
there. In 1798, it passes to the Army of Italy under the commands
of Joubert. It is distinguished at the time of the battle of
Novi (August 15, 1799) where, reached of fourteen wounds, it
is finally made prisoner.
On its return in France, it passed in
the Reserve army. Moreau asks that Grouchy be affected for him.
With head of a division of the Army of Moreau, it plays a decisive
role with Hohenlinden (December 3, 1800).
General controlling a division of cavalry,
it takes part in the campaign of Prussia of 1806: it is the first
to enter Lübeck. In Eylau on February 8, 1807, its load
of cavalry is heroic. Four months later with Friedland (June
14, 1807), it is still distinguished. It is sent in Spain, is
appointed governor of Madrid and takes part in the repression
of May 2, 1808. Responsible for the command of the cavalry of
the Army of Italy, it takes part in the battle of Raab (June
14, 1809) under the command of prince Eugene de Beauharnais.
In Wagram in 1809, its division of dragons plays a decisive role.
In Borodino in 1812,
its command of IIIème body of cavalry is irreproachable.
It is charged to cover the retirement of the Grande Armée.
When at the end of the campaign, it asks to pass in the infantry,
Napoleon refuses, wishing to preserve riding brilliant Si. But
Grouchy, wounded in its love-clean, is withdrawn. There remains
nevertheless faithful and proposes its services for the campaign
of France, in 1814. It is named with the head of forces of cavalry
and is distinguished in Vauchamps.
it marshal, but it will obtain its patent only at the time of
the Hundred Days. Present with Ligny (June 16, 1815), Grouchy
controls the French cavalry. June 17, Napoleon gives him the
command to continue Blücher with the head of two bodies
of infantry and two bodies of cavalry to prevent the junction
with Wellington. The Prussian masks the movement of his troops
by leaving a rear-guard in curtain. June 18, Grouchy, on the
road of Wavres, hears the noise of the guns of the battle of
Mount-Saint-Jean. It is not diverted. It did not receive any
command in this direction.
With the second Restoration,
Grouchy takes refuge in America. It re-enters to France in 1821,
when Louis XVIII restores it in his titles, except for the title
of marshal. Under the Monarchy of July, Louis-Philippe returns
this title to him and names it Pair France. It dies in 1847.